Mobile technologies have taken a huge leap forward since the early days of the 1980s. In those early years, we had simple devices such as two-way pagers and clunky mobile phones that were still quite cumbersome. Today’s technology is very advanced and many of us even carry miniature supercomputers with us wherever we go.
Today a standard mobile device isn’t just for communicating with other people through verbal conversations or written messages – these smartphones can open up all sorts of opportunities for you to relax and have fun! There are GPS navigation tools which allow you to get from one place to another without needing to ask for directions; there are Internet browsers which allow you to connect to online communities, there are even gaming consoles which allow you to unwind in the comfort of your own home! Through apps, functionality is now extendable into many areas.
What Is Mobile Technology?
Mobile technology is about taking this thing called the world and shrinking it down to the size of your hand! “Portable” simply means something that can be taken somewhere without too much effort, but there are several components that make up mobile technology. One major component that you might notice in almost all forms of mobile technology is cellular networking, which allows devices like phones and tablets to communicate with one another.
Different Types of Mobile Technologies:
Imagine you’re a mobile phone. Ideally, you should have a good coverage over large regions. Let’s break down the types of mobile networks that connect calls and data to mobile phones – Cellular Communication Signals that negotiate call and text message coverage for terrestrial mobile phones are managed by cell towers. They operate similarly to wireless access points.
By increasing its output power, cellular technology can increase its transmission radius from several miles to several miles in radius which is ideal for covering densely populated locales. The downside is increased device cost due to increased power consumption. In addition, because it operates on a shared frequency band, the recipient could be transmitting at the same time as the sender, creating dead air-time during conversations.
Cellular technology is one in a vast array of mobile technologies that allow for effective and efficient communication in an easy and (usually) affordable way. Essentially, cellular technology makes it possible for us to connect to the Internet from pretty much anywhere we happen to be in—and not just when we’re at home or work. Signaling between our devices’ cell towers send data back-and-forth, using these devices’ ability to get online quickly with just a low-strength signal.
Consider how cellular companies are needed in order to provide service. It’s important for these companies to calculate the number of towers that must exist within a marketplace in order for everyone to enjoy seamless connection.
A major factor that plays into this is that areas need to be uniform, which can only happen with regular shapes, forms and sizes. Since cellular technology enables communication between stationary sites scattered over a large region, it is suited ideally for hexagonal cells. The image example below depicts an antenna on each tower’s center, which will broadcast directly upwards.
This allows devices at any location on any side of this cell to obtain strong reception power more or less independently of where the device is located within the cell.
Cellular phones and mobile devices require a series of towers to form the network, and their range must be large enough to cover all areas where there are people with cellular service. A cell tower serves as a way of boosting reception. Cell towers typically communicate over several hundred feet, but this distance depends upon factors such as terrain quality & manufacturer specification.
We may or may not know how many cell towers there are in the world, but we do know that our cell phones depend on them to keep us connected!
A mobile device often has to switch from one signal source to another – this is called handover. Another radio resource challenge comes when several devices want to communicate at the same time over the same channel, which leads to congestion and decreased performance.
A medium access control (MAC) protocol solves these problems by multiplexing data streams from different devices and addressing issues such as how a device acquires a channel, and so forth.
Early on when computers were being designed, wired connections would have been the only way to transfer information from one computer to another. Wires are relatively inexpensive and can handle large amounts of data for this reason they are sometimes called “broadband”.
While wireless technology does exist, it is also very technical in terms of function and there are many technological components that need to work in conjunction with each other which in turn makes them more costly in many cases.
In the mobile networks, when trying to access a network from a desktop or laptop, there are often substantial challenges in reducing signal disruption, interference from other cellular devices in the area, and preventing poor quality data from being sent. In order to offset these concerns, a radio protocol that is designed with robustness is useful because it ensures that no matter what the situation may be – there will always be a mechanism for delivering signal transmission.
In this design, a central planner controls allocating resources. It may be a base station in a cellular network or an access point in a wireless local area network. Pre-designated resources such as bandwidth, time slots, frequency bands and signal patterns are controlled by the manager to properly allocate resources to devices depending on the devices’ needs for transmitting data packets. The manager ensures that the process of transmitting data between devices does not interfere with one another which helps protect against frame collisions.
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA):
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) is the oldest partitioning technique. This technique uses multiple channels to communicate with one single base station. A link is allocated in a single session, which offers users the chance to use distinct frequency bands that they can use without conflicting with others. The corresponding receiving device can simply tune to the desired band and receive data packets without confusion.
When a channel is not in use, it lies idle and cannot be utilized by others until something else happens after so much time has gone by. And lastly, any device will transmit simultaneously and continuously on the assigned channel using FDM.
Time-division multiple access (TDMA):
This is a more fine-grained partitioning technique when managing applications with varying data transfer rates. Just like you would find in traditional scheduling, slots allow for different devices to have their own designated time slot during a certain period of time. For example, you could consider a Wi-Fi router that provides two channels – the 5G channel and the 2.4G channel – both of which have varying transfer rate requirements.
During a given time period, each channel has its own slot or even multiple slots depending on how many devices are on that channel, but they only use them when they need them making it much more efficient for device communication!
Spread-spectrum multiple access (SSMA):
This is a class of channel partitioning techniques combining frequency and time multiplexing. Signals have a bigger bandwidth than the information data rate. Frequency Hopping systems and Direct Sequence are the most popular techniques in this class.
Frequency Hopping Code Division Multiple Access combines time and frequency multiple access techniques; it is similar to the conventional FDMA systems, but users hop from frequency to frequency, and each device has a unique hop sequence.DS-CDMA uses what is known as Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum or DS-SS.
Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA):
OFDMA is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) which sends numerous data symbols in parallel mode of which each carrier can be modified independently. OFDM is relatively simple to implement and robust against multipath fading and inter-symbol interference.
However, OFDM has low sensitivity to time synchronization errors when compared to other channel coding techniques used with BPSK or QAM channel encoding. On the other hand, OFDM is very sensitive to frequency-domain errors such as Doppler shift and frequency synchronization problems.
Space division multiple access (SDMA):
Mobile devices are usually positioned far away, and SDMA uses this spatial separation to reuse the frequency spectrum for higher network capacity. The simplest method of SDMA is reusing the same frequency in different cells of a mobile cellular network. To guarantee satisfactory co-channel interference, the cells that reuse the same frequency are adequately separated in space.
A more advanced SDMA technology facilitates frequency reuse within each cell. This technology uses smart antenna arrays and intelligent signal processing methods to point the antenna beam to the desired users and places. It cancels out in the direction of other devices.
A more advanced SMMA technology facilitates frequency reuse within each cell. This technology uses smart antenna arrays and intelligent signal processing methods to point the antenna beam towards a level that does not interfere with other devices using the same spectrum.